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Author Topic: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues  (Read 2205 times)

Offline emccomas

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Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« on: June 07, 2016, 10:37:33 AM »
OK, a quick update for everyone...

I have been researching actual recipients of the Tiffany Cross version of the Navy and Marine Corps Medal of Honor.  The Naval Historical Heritage Command says that there were 28 recipients of the Tiffany Cross, broken down to 21 Naval and 7 Marine Corps personnel.  They could not explain where that number came from.  I recently discovered the source of these numbers (with the help of other researchers).

The Tiffany Cross has the dates 1917 - 1918 on the obverse, implying that it is a World War I decoration.  During World War I there were 21 Naval and 7 Marine Corps personnel that were awarded the Medal of Honor for action in World War I.  Now I know where the "official" number came from.

But how accurate are those numbers.  We already know that there are well known recipients of the Tiffany Cross MOH for actions other than World War I.  ADM Richard Byrd and Machinist Floyd Bennett for their flight to the North Pole are two good examples.

So how many actual recipients of the Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor are there?

First, some ground rules.... what constitutes proof of a recipient of the Tiffany Cross version of the Medal of Honor

I developed these rules.

1.  A photograph of the recipient wearing the Tiffany Cross version of the Medal of Honor (preferably at the time of presentation)
2.  A photograph of an engraved Tiffany Cross that clearly identified the recipient.
3.  A display of medals attributed to a specific MOH recipient where the Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor is present.

Some Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor recipients later requested STAR style replacement Medals of Honor, so a photograph opf a recipient wearing a STAR version is not proof that this was the original version awarded, unless the photograph was taken at the time of presentation.  There are no known examples of STAR MOH recipients later requesting a Tiffany Cross replacement MOH.

Also, there are no know recipients of the Tiffany Cross Medal of Honor for any action that occurred prior to World War I, even if the award was made after World War I.

And finally, the Tiffany Cross Medal of Homor was first available for award in February 1919, and was discontinued in 1942.  Any presentations MADE prior to February 1919 had to have been the STAR version.
The last known presentation of the Tiffany Cross version of the Medal of Honor was in Jun of 1928.

With all of that in mind, we can establish the following:

1.  All Tiffany Cross recipients received their medals between Feb, 1919 and Jun, 1928.
2.  All Tiffany Cross recipients were for action during or after World War I, so that means between April, 1917 (when the US declared war) and Jun 1928.

So, just to cover all bases, I looked at all of the Navy and Marine Corps recipients of the Medal of Honor for action between 1917 and 1940, with award dated between 1919 and 1940.

There are 51 recipients of the Navy and Marine Corps Medal of Honor that fit into those date ranges.

I'll start of the details of the recipients as I get my notes organized.  In the meantime, here is the Tiffany Cross in all of its glory.

Offline Tom E. Gunn

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #1 on: June 07, 2016, 11:14:21 AM »
A promising piece of research. Do keep us up to speed!  ;)
"He who dares, wins!"

Offline M1Ashooter

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #2 on: June 07, 2016, 11:42:09 AM »
Cool stuff.  I wasn't aware of this.  Please keep teaching me.

Offline emccomas

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #3 on: June 07, 2016, 12:08:10 PM »
I did leave out some basic stuff...

Between 1919 and 1941 the Navy and Marine Corps had two versions of the Medal of Honor.  The 5 point STAR version that has been around since the Civil War, and the Tiffany Cross version.. The Tiffany Cross version was designed by Tiffany & Company of NY.

The original idea was that there would be one version of the Medal of Honor for actions involving enemy engagements, and a separate version for action not involving the enemy (i.e. life saving activities, etc).

The STAR version was to the non-enemy contact version, and the Tiffany Cross was to be for actions involving enemy engagements.

Those informal set of rules really did not get followed closely, as the two Tiffany Cross Medals of Honor for the North Pole flight were clearly not involving enemy action.

Offline emccomas

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #4 on: June 07, 2016, 12:22:00 PM »
OK, so lets start with the 51 possible recipients.  These are the men that were awarded the Navy Medal of Honor between 1919 and 1919, for actions retroactive to April 6, 1917 (the US declaration of war).

1. Badders - STAR (Confirmed)
2. Balch - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
3. Bennett - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
4. Boone - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
5. Bradley- STAR (Confirmed)
6. Breault- STAR (Confirmed)
7. Button- STAR (Confirmed)
8. Byrd - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
9. Cann - STAR (Confirmed)
10. Cholister - STAR (Confirmed)
11. Corry - UNKNOWN
12. Covington - STAR (Confirmed)
13. Crandall - STAR (Confirmed)
14. Cukela - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
15. Drexler - STAR (Confirmed)
16. Eadie - STAR (Confirmed)
17. Edwards - STAR (Confirmed)
18. Graves - STAR (Confirmed)
19. Hammann - UNKNOWN
20. Hanneken - STAR (Confirmed)
21. Hayden - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
22. Hobson - STAR (Confirmed)
23. Huber - STAR (Confirmed)
24. Hutchins - STAR (Confirmed)
25. Ingram - UNKNOWN
26. Izac - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
27. Janson - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed)
28. Jones - STAR (Confirmed)
29. Kelly - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
30. Kocak - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed)
31. Lyle - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
32. MacKinzie - STAR (Confirmed)
33. Madison - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
34. McDonald - STAR (Confirmed)
35. McGunigal - STAR (Confirmed)
36. Mihalowski - STAR (Confirmed)
37. Ormsbee - STAR (Confirmed)
38. Osborne - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed)
39. Petty - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
40. Pruitt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
41. Robinson - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
42. Ryan - STAR (Confirmed)
43. Schilt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
44. Schmidt - STAR (Confirmed)
45. Siegel - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
46. Smith, Albert - STAR (Confirmed)
47. Stockham - ARMY MOH Awarded (Confirmed)
48. Sullivan - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
49. Talbot - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
50. Truesdale - STAR (Confirmed)
51. Upton - STAR (Confirmed)

Offline emccomas

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #5 on: June 07, 2016, 12:38:05 PM »
So we now have 17 confirmed recipients of the Tiffany Cross, and 6 possibles / unknown out of the 51 original.

1. Balch - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
2. Bennett - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
3. Boone - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
4. Byrd - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
5. Cukela - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed
6. Hayden - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
7. Izac - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
8. Kelly - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
9. Lyle - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
10. Madison - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
11. Petty - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
12. Pruitt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
13. Robinson - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
14. Schilt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
15. Siegel - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
16. Sullivan - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
17. Talbot - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)


Now, of the 6 that possibles that cannot be conclusively proven, we have strong evidence of 6 of them as indicated below.

1. Corry - UNKNOWN
2. Hammann - assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article
3. Ingram - assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article
4. Janson - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed, strong evidence indicates, photo seen in the past, cannot be located now)
5. Kocak - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed, strong evidence indicates, display at Naval Academy attributed to Kocak has Tiffany Cross, display has been removed, medal location unknown)
6. Osborne - assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article

Offline emccomas

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Re: Tiffany Cross Recipients - the research continues
« Reply #6 on: June 07, 2016, 12:41:26 PM »
So, if we accept the assumptions based on the strong evidence, we have 22 confirmed recipients of the Tiffany Cross version of the Medal of Honor, with only LCDR William Merrill Corry as the sole unknown type of MOH.

1. Balch - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
2. Bennett - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
3. Boone - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
4. Byrd - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
5. Cukela - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
6. Hammann - assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article
7. Hayden - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
8. Ingram - assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article
9. Izac - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
10. Janson - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed, strong evidence indicates, photo seen in the past, cannot be located now)
11. Kelly - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
12. Kocak - TIFFANY CROSS (NOT Confirmed, strong evidence indicates, display at Naval Academy attributed to Kocak had Tiffany Cross, display has been removed, medal location unknown)
13. Lyle - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
14. Madison - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
15. Osborne - TIFFANY CROSS assumed TIFFANY CROSS based on 11/11/1920 newspaper article
16. Petty - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
17. Pruitt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
18. Robinson - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
19. Schilt - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
20. Siegel - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
21. Sullivan - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
22. Talbot - TIFFANY CROSS (Confirmed)
 
OK, that is enough words, next I will present the evidence (pictures) for each of the above listed recipients.
« Last Edit: June 07, 2016, 12:42:46 PM by emccomas »

 

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